Among the pharaohs of Egypt who made a real reformation of the internal conditions was king Horemheb. King Horemheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. He ruled Egypt from 1319 BC to late 1292 BC.
His name means Horus is in Jubilation. Some scholars believe that he was the killer of king Tutankhamen.
Horemheb was the vizier of king Tutankhamen, as the young pharaoh had 2 viziers, the first one was Ay, who ruled Egypt for a very short period, and Horemheb, who ruled directly after the death of Ay.
Noteworthy, king Horemheb was not of the royal blood, but the scholars concluded that he ruled the kingdom for 2 reasons:
- There was no body remained from the royal family to rule the country.
- He was the most powerful man in the kingdom at that time.
He worked as the royal spokesman of Egypt. He led one of the diplomatic expeditions to visit the rulers of the Nubia.
After that, he became very close to Tutankhamen and occupied the position of high commander of the army and the chancellor of the pharaoh.
King Horemheb started some reformation policies over the corruption which spread during the reign of king Akhenaten because he was very busy in his religious revolution. At that time the bribers spread among the employers and high officials.
Also the chaos, thuggery, and robbery spread, so Horemheb decided to control and eliminate the corruption that started during the era of king Akhenaten.
King Horemheb was the first one who issued the laws and legislations to organize the political and social life in Egypt.
He was very interesting also in issuing the laws that regulated the relation between the citizen and the governing authority.Horemheb issued a special law to fight the corruption in 1300 B.C.
Horemheb issued a special law to fight the corruption in 1300 B.C. Among the articles of this law was the death penalty to any employer, soldier, or priest who took bribery.
Another article has sentenced a punishment to any administrative employee who prosecuted the poor people of collect more than the determined taxes; who did so he would be punished by cutting his nose and expelling to the “Taru” at the Eastern-Northern borders of Egypt (Gaza nowadays).
He was also very firm with the men of the army although he was one of them, but he wanted to be just.
He appointed 2 viziers, one for the affairs of the South, and the other for the affairs of the North. He told them to be fair and never take bribes from the people, or they would be executed. King Horemheb was one of the most powerful pharaohs of Egypt.