The history of ancient Egypt divided into two eras: Prehistory and the second historical era. Consequently, Egypt has the most ancient written history in the whole world.
- Prehistory (6000 B
Once the Egyptian Homo sapiens has discovered the farming and domesticating the animals, he stabilized in small co-operation communities nearby the Nile valley.
After establishing in the Lower and Upper Egypt,
- The second historical era:-
This ancient historical era divided into thirty dynasties and three states.
In this era, Not only the writing has been discovered by the ancient Egyptians, but also the features of the arts and religion have taken a shape.
Although Egypt was ruled by strong central government, Egypt passed by the first intermediate period.
The early dynastic period 3100- 2690 B.C:-
This period also is known as “the political unity era”
In addition to, the early dynastic period included the first and second dynasties. Moreover, the ancient Egyptian
The old kingdom 2180-2690 B.C):-
The old kingdom period included four dynasties (from the third dynasty to the sixth dynasty). In that time, Egypt has attained the peak of civilization in all science fields of astronomy, medicine, and engineering, in addition to, the ancient Egyptian arts such as painting Architecture, sculpture, and engraving reached to a high level of development in that period.
The Egyptologists called this period “the age of Pyramids “because a large number of Pyramids have been built in Egypt nearby the kings’ palaces by ancient Egyptian.
- The first intermediate period (2180-2060 B.C):-
This period included four dynasties (from the seventh dynasty to the tenth dynasty) in the ancient Egyptian history.
The last period was followed by disunity, chaos, cultural, and arts decline. Nonetheless, the literature has reached up to a high level of flourish, so the Egyptologists referred to this period by “dark period”, but Thebes’ princess unified the states and raised them up.
- The middle kingdom 2060-1710 B.C :-
This period included four dynasties (from the eleventh dynasty to the fourteenth dynasty). At that time, all kings paid their attention to the foreign policy, they comprised the lower Nubia ”also known as “Ta-Seti” in the ancient history of Egypt ” to other three states. Moreover, they have implemented large irrigation projects.
- The second intermediate period 1710-1560 B.C of the history in ancient Egypt:-
The second intermediate period included three dynasties (from the fifteenth dynasty to seventeenth dynasty).
During this period, Egypt was conquered by The Hyksos, but Thebes’ princess: Ahmose I, Kamose, and Seqenen Ra have liberated Egypt. Therefore, they are considered as the founders of the new kingdom.
- The New Kingdom (1580 -1085 B.C):-
The New Kingdom period included three dynasties (from the eighteenth dynasty to the twentieth dynasty. Also, this period is known as “the Egyptian empire era”
The Egyptian empire has become so vast. As the result, Egypt has comprised the Northern of Syria, Mesopotamia”Al- Iraq’’and the Fourth Cataract in Sudan. As well as, Thebes was the capital of Egyptian Empire, in addition to; lots of wonderful tombs and temples have established there.
- The third intermediate period 1085-663 B.C
The Third intermediate period (from the twenty-first dynasty until the twenty-fifth dynasty).
Libyan kings such as (Shoshenq I, Yokrus and other kings were Nubian such as Yankhi) ruled Egypt.
Also, Egypt was conquered by the Assyrians, but the Egyptian and their leader Psamtik I “the founder of twenty- sixth dynasty” liberated their country 663-529 B.C.
As well as Egypt was invaded by the Persians, also strong leaders liberated their country. After the end of the era, a new era started when Alexander invaded Egypt 332 B.C.
- The Names of the kings of the First Dynasty (3100 – 2690 B.C):-
- The Names of the kings of the Second Dynasty:-
- The old kingdom (2180-2690 B.C):-
The Third Dynasty:-
Djoser was the first king of the old kingdom ruled Egypt in the ancient Egyptian history. As well as, he issued the order to Imhotep to build the step pyramid in Saqqara.
The kings who came after Djoser:
The Names of the Kings of the Fourth Dynasty:-
Khufu: His pyramid is the first Pyramid and the largest one in Giza
Khafre: His pyramid is the second largest Pyramid and in Giza
Menkaure: His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza.
- The Names of the kings of the Fifth Dynasty in the history of ancient Egypt:-
Unas: The Unas Pyramid knew as the south western Pyramid.
- The Names of the Kings of the Sixth Dynasty:-
Meryre Pepi I
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Neferkare Pepi II
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II
- The First Intermediate Period 2180-2060 B.C:-
This period included three dynasties (from the seventh dynasty to the tenth dynasty).
The Egyptologists called this period by the Feudalism era in ancient Egyptian history, which it led to the social and economic Deterioration followed by social revolution.
The Names of the kings of the Seventh and Eighteenth Dynasty:-
Neferkare (III) Neby
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
The Names of the king of the Nineteenth Dynasties:-
Meryibre Khety I and his dynasty were the kings of this dynasty
The Names of the Kings of the Tenth Dynasty:-
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)
The Middle Kingdom 2060 -1785 B.C:-
The Names of the Kings of Eleventh Dynasty:-
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Sehertawy Intef I
Wahankh Intef II
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef I
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV
The Twelfth Dynasty:-
The kings of this dynasty were:-
Kheperkare Senusret I
Nubkaure Amenemhat II
Khakaure Senusret III (Sesostris III)
Nimaatre Amenemhat III
The second Intermediate period 1785-1580 B.C:-
This period includes four dynasties (from the thirteenth dynasty to seventeenth dynasty). This period of weakness whereas Egypt fell into disarray once again.
The Nile Valley was occupied by the Hyksos” Heqau Khasut”. They conquered the country by using “Chariots” it was the unknown weapon, but the Egyptian developed their own design of the Chariot.
Consequently, The ancient Egyptian with their leader “Ahmose I” have liberated their country and achieved an immemorial victory after 150 years of the occupation.
The Names of the Kings of Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties 1785-1710 B.C:-
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Awybre Hor I
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
The Historians disagreed on the names of thirty kings of these two dynasties who ruled Egypt for hundred years which it led to disunity and Deterioration.
The Hyksos invasion:-
Hyksos came from western Asian then they occupied Egypt and established their capital in the East of Delta at the end of the fourteenth dynasty. Although the South of the city was not under their control, the Princes were paying the taxes to them.
They stayed in the north of Egypt for a century and a half, but the princes of the South have beaten them and they achieved a great immemorial victory against the Hyksos.
The Names of the kings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties 1710-1680 B.C:-
Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemreseusertawy
Neferhotep III Sekhemresankhtawy
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
The Names of the kings of Seventeenth Dynasty 1680-1580 B.C:-
Sekhemre (Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I)
Sekhemre (Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II)
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
Senakhten Re Ahmose
Seqenen Ra Tao
The struggling against the Hyksos started by the king Seqenen, He died in the battle and his son king kamose struggling against the Hyksos, and the last king who beat them was Ahmose I.
The New Kingdom 1580-1085 B.C:-
After ending the liberation war the kings of Egypt started to conquered Syria, Euphrates River, and Palestine.
The kings of this dynasty constructed huge temples such as Karnak and Luxor temples, in this period, the country reached up to the high level of flourished arts science, and trading.
The religion coup took place by the king “Akhenaten” at the end of this dynasty, he worshipped the sun disk and he made it the symbol of the unification of the god.
He moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna, but his son Tutankhaten worshipped the ancient god and the ancient capital after that he changed his name to Tutankhamun, then the power moved to the kings of the nineteenth dynasty.
The Names of the kings of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasty in the history of ancient Egypt:-
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
Menpehtire Ramses I
Userkheperure Seti II
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah
The Names of the kings of the Twentieth Dynasty 1200-1085 B.C:-
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
setpenamun Ramesses IV
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
The last Intermediate Period 1085-332 B.C of ancient Egypt history:-
The last nine ramesseum kings were very weak who cause falling of the twentieth dynasty then the last intermediate period which includes ten dynasties (from the twenty-first dynasty to thirty-first dynasty) started.
This period was ended by the invasion of Alexander in Egypt. During this period the Empire separated from its camps in the North and South.
The Names of the kings of the Twenty – First Dynasty 1085 -950 B.C:-
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
The Names of the kings of the Twenty – Second Dynasty 950 -730 B.C in the history of ancient Egypt:-
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
Usermaatre Osorkon IV
The Names of the kings of the Twenty- Third and Twenty- fourth Dynasties 817- 730 B.C and 730-715 B.C:-
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
The Names of the kings of the Twenty- Fifth Dynasty:-
The Nubian king controlled the Upper Egypt, and then he established this Nubian dynasty.
The Names of the kings of the Twenty -Sixth Dynasty 663-525 B.C:-
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
The Names of the kings of the Twenty –Seventh Dynasty525-404 B.C:-
Egypt was occupied by the Persians for 124 years.
The kings of this period were:
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Darius I the Great
Xerxes I the Great
The Names of the kings of the Twenty –Eighth Dynasty 404 -398 B.C:-
Amyrtaeus who the first Egyptian king was able to remove the power from the Persians for six years.
The Names of the kings of the twenty -Ninth Dynasty 398-378 B.C:-
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Baenre Nefaarud I
The Names of the Kings of the Thirtieth Dynasty 378-341 B.C:-
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
They entered into many wars against the Persians, but at the end, they established the thirty–eleventh dynasty. Their period of rule did not keep too much because this dynasty ended by the invasion Alexander.
The Thirty- First Dynasties 341-333 B.C:-
Artaxerxes IV Arses
Now, we have mentioned the history of ancient Egypt from the beginning until the 30th dynasty.