Now we are going to talk about some facts about Egyptian history. We will talk about the Hyksos and their origin as an important part of Egyptian history.
The 2nd intermediate period
The 2nd intermediate period began in 1785 B.C after the death of King Sobek Nefrw Re, the last ruler of the 12th dynasty, and terminated in 1560 B.C when King Ahmose I expelled the Hyksos out of the kingdom.
After the death of Queen Sobek Nfrw Re, the 12th dynasty came to end because she had no heir.
At the first part of the 2nd intermediate period the 13th dynasty ruled the country, then it entered into a conflict with the rulers of “Avaris city” in Delta.
After that, the 15th and 16th dynasties ruled the country after eliminating the 14th, and then the 17th dynasty came after killing the members of the 16th dynasty.
Ancient Egyptian facts: who were the Hyksos?
The historian Manetho named these tribes the Hyksos. They did not belong to a certain origin, and their exact origin is still under studying and researching.
The scholars put an acceptable opinion that the immigration of these tribes related to the immigrations of some barbarian and foreign tribes came from Central Asia because of the Physical phenomena at the beginning of the 2nd millennia B.C.
These tribes came with a high number of people to Europe, Anatolia, and Fertile Crescent.
The historians have called these immigrations the Indo-European, and the sources of Mesopotamia civilization have called them “Cassins”, while the sources of Asia Minor have called them “Hittites”, and they have been known as Hyksos in the Egyptian civilization.
Egypt facts: The meaning of word Hyksos
As we said, Manetho called these foreign tribes the Hyksos, but what does it mean?
It was derived from the ancient Egyptian language word “hka khasut” which means the rulers of the foreign lands.
The “hka khasut” word was first appeared in “Story of Sinuhe”, and one of the historians called “Mr. Wolf” thought that this name referred to the nomads of Palestine, but when the ancient Egyptian called this name they referred to them as their enemy.
The Hyksos invasion
The Hyksos tribes have attacked Egypt with a high number of soldiers so the Egyptian could not resist them at the beginning, then they settled in the Delta in the area of “Ht Wrt”, which the Greeks called it “Avaris”.
They fortified it and made it their capital. We have a text mentions that the beginning of the Hyksos was at 1730 B.C., this text was called the stela of 400 years, which was written at the time of king Ramses II.
Facts about Egypt: the ruler dynasties of the Hyksos
The Hyksos founded the 15th dynasty. It was found by Salitis.
After the death of this ruler, the historical sources have mentioned four other rulers which are:
- Mai Ib Re shish.
- Jacob Hr.
- Kheyan: one of the greatest rulers of the Hyksos. He had 2 scarabs and one seal. He got many titles among them:
– The ruler of the foreign lands.
– The good god Kheyan.
– The ruler of soldiers.
– Kheyan the beloved of his companion.
Son of the sun.-
- Abu Fis I: we have found some objects belong to this ruler among them two scarabs.
- Nb Khebsh Re.
King Seqenen Re who was ruling Thebes was the first man to fight against the Hyksos and died at one of the battles against them.
Then his son Kamose continued after him. He defeated them at many battles but could not expel them completely out of the kingdom. After there he died.
His brother king Ahmose I managed to expel and defeat them out of the kingdom, and then we did not hear about these tribes again in the history till now.
After that king Ahmose I founded the 18th dynasty which was the 1st dynasty in the New Kingdom.
Now we mentioned some interesting facts about the Egyptian history, which belong to the Hyksos and their origin.