We are going to talk about one of the greatest Egyptian kings, pharaoh king Thutmose III.
King Thutmose III
Thutmose III was one of the greatest pharaohs that had ever ruled Egypt. He was the sixth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty.
He ruled Egypt for almost 53 years, including the 21 years of Hatshepsut’s co-regency. Thutmose III’s wives included one woman called sȝt-ỉˁḥ, daughter of a royal nurse. She had the titles of “Great royal wife” and in one surviving text “God’s wife”.
When the kingship reverted to Thutmose III alone, he did not waste any time, as he decided to make a great position for both himself and for Egypt that was to be remembered a millennium later.
He started a vast policy of construction as well as an aggressive foreign policy against Egypt’s neighboring countries.
At the beginning of his sole reign the Asiatic rulers, who haven’t seen any Egyptian troops during the 21 years of Hatshepsut’s co-regency and reign, succeeded in uniting themselves under the direction of the prince of Kadesh and rebelled against the Egyptian king.
Thutmose III carried out seventeen campaigns against them in Palestine and southern Syria; some of them were punitive expeditions and he pushed the frontier of Egypt as far back as the Euphrates.
The fact about Battle of Megiddo
His most important battle was the battle of Megiddo in which he achieved a great victory over the Hittites, one of Egypt’s northern enemies.
The peace offerings presented to the Egyptian pharaoh to end the seven-month siege of the town.
His expedition in Nubia
Thutmose III also led one military expedition in Nubia and thus during his reign the Egyptian empire extended from Gabel el Barkel near the fourth cataract in the south to the Euphrates near Iraq in the north.
Thutmose III campaigns were recorded in his annals at Karnak. The annals which were inscribed in the forty-second year of his reign, have become the primary historical record of the king’s conquests.
The successful wars of Thutmose III increased the wealth of Egypt and tributes were sent to Egypt from the different parts of the empire. This enables Thutmose III to make many constructions all over the country.
His Internal achievements
Similar to the other pharaohs, Karnak continued to be the most favored site.
- He reconstructed the central areas of the temple, removing Amenhotep I’s limestone chapels and replacing them in sandstone.
- He built a temple for Amun-Ra upon the walls of which he recorded an oracle stating that he was chosen by Amun to rule Egypt in a festival celebrated during his father’s reign.
- The sixth and seventh pylons were also built by the king, as well as a temple of Ptah on the north side of the precinct, and a granite bark shrine in the center of the temple.
- Thutmose III has a beautiful tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV34) with beautiful scenes, among the most famous of which is the one representing him suckling from his mother queen Isis who is represented as a tree.