Ancient Egyptian Medicine, facts about Medicine in ancient Egypt

facts about ancient Egyptian Medicine

The ancient Egyptian medicine dates back to the very early civilization. Maybe it dates back to the pre-dynastic period and lasted until the end of the Pharaonic period and the beginning of the Persian invasion.

The ancient Egyptian medicine was very advanced. The medicine nowadays depended on a lot of theories and discoveries of the ancient Egyptian medicine.

The ancient Egyptians had a great knowledge of the Anatomy of the human body. The secret of this knowledge related to the mummification, as the mummification enabled them to know the human body.

They had also a great knowledge of surgery, setting of bones, pharmacopoeia and the Pharmacology.


He was considered the most famous physician in the ancient Egyptian history. Imhotep was the first vizier of king Djoser. He lived in the 3rd dynasty.

He worked as the chief architect of king Djeser as he supervised the building of the step pyramid at Saqqara.

The Greeks identified him with their god of medicine (Askolepios). He was deified some two thousand years after his death. He was worshiped as a god of medicine.

The sources of information about the medicine in ancient Egypt:

  • The first source was Homer. He said about the ancient Egyptian medicine that the Egyptians were very professionals and skilled in the medicine.
  • The second source was the Greek historian Herodotus who visited Egypt and wrote about the Egyptian medicine.
  • A lot of papyrus talked about the medicine in ancient Egypt like the Ebers papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Hearst Papyrus, the London Medical Papyrus and others.
  • The Edwin Smith Papyrus talked about the surgery in ancient Egypt and the examination of the body and diagnosis.
  • The Ebers papyrus contains a lot of amulets and magical formulas to expel the disease.
ancient Egypt Medicine, Ebres papyrus
Ebres papyrus, ancient Egyptian Medicine

The profession of the medicine in ancient Egypt

 The word doctor means in ancient Egyptian language is “swnw”. The doctor in ancient Egypt enjoyed high rank and great respect from all the people.

Kings paid a great care and attention to the doctors as the doctors were the healers from all the disease and they considered the rescue from the pains.

Examples of the most famous physicals

  • Imhotep who live during the reign of king djeser
  • Hesy-ra who was the chief of dentists.
  • Djehutyemhe who lived during the reign of king Ramases II.

Facts about Medical tools

facts about Egyptian Medicine, medical tools
Medical tools, ancient Egyptian Medicine
Ancient Egyptian doctor invented many medical tools and utilities, including a scalpel, knife, tweezers, and pliers. The ancient Egyptians mentioned these tools in many manuscripts and in some graphics.

The devices of every doctor were small knives and spoon for ointments and a mortar to crush the drug. The doctor used the buzzards for the treatment of the eye.

They also used Enema for treatment. The ancient Egyptian physicals also used incense to healing.