Ancient Egyptian agriculture was the first within the history of the mankind. The agriculture in ancient Egypt was considered a lifeline at that time.
Now, we are going to know some interesting facts about ancient Egyptian agriculture.
The silos and storing the grains in the ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians were storing their grains in special silos, as well as, Egypt was the main exporter of the grains in the Middle East. Moreover; they were roasting the grains before storing them in the silos.
- The description of the soils
The soils were about conical rooms and the ancient Egyptians were using the bricks to build these silos which they used it to store their grains, besides these silos’ floor, was covered by a thick layer of the stone to banning the rats from getting inside these silos.
- The different types of the agricultural crops in the ancient Egypt agriculture
Agriculture in ancient Egypt distinguished by the diversity of the crops, consequently; the ancient Egyptian peasant was planting different types of crops such as fruit, vegetables, beans, and grains in the ancient Egypt, as also they were planting other different types of crops which he has known from neighboring countries which have the same weather of Egypt.
- Now we are going to focus on the most important crops which planted in the ancient Egypt:
The wheat considered as the main grain, which the ancient Egyptian peasant has planted in the ancient Egypt.
They were planting this type of grain besides the other types of grains such as beans and barley, consequently; Egypt has become the silos of grains for the old world and they were exporting these grains to all countries around whole the world.
The wheat was the main daily food on the dining table to the Egyptians from the past until now.
The Barely was the most important crop in the ancient Egypt, as well as the ancient Egyptians, were baking the bread from barely, moreover; they were brewing the beer from the Barely.
The beer was the main drink on the dining table in the ancient Egypt, besides that they were giving the Barely to the Temples and tombs as immolations.
- Beans” Vicia faba”:
There were different medical papyrus confirmed that the ancient Egyptians have known the beans in the first Pharaonic eras, then this type of foods has become the main Egyptian food from the past until now.
Also, they mentioned different names of the beans in this Medical papyrus such as “auret, “aur”, “fure”, also known as “fabu” in the Coptic language.
Moreover, they were giving the beans to the god as immolations. Besides that, some Papyrus mentioned that the Pharaoh king “Ramses III” handed out too much quantity of the beans in the silos of the god “Amun’s temples” in Thebes.
The ancient Egyptian agricultural calendar
The ancient Egyptians were depending on the appearing of the star “Sibdit” to define their calendar, sometimes they found difficulties to divide it into equal months when the Arabic months might be between 29 or 30 days.
- The ancient Egyptian calendar:
- How did the ancient Egyptian divide the year into seasons?
The seasons of the year not only for the farming but also included the different activities which the ancient Egyptian involved in.
At that time, Egypt was suffering from the drought after that period followed by the flooding of the Nile River and finally many different types of crops has grown up.
The ancient Egyptian divided the Agricultural Year into three equal seasons and each one of them has a specific step of cultivating the agricultural lands for example:
- The first season was Peret ”the winter”:
This season has started from the second part of October to the first part of February. After the agricultural land had dried very well, they planted the seeds in the land.
- The second season was Akhet:
This season, also known as “the season of flood” and this season was starting from the second part of June to the first part of October.
- The third season was Shemu:
This season also is known as “’the season of the harvest”, Moreover; this season was starting from February to June.
- The agricultural months in ancient Egypt:
The ancient Egyptians have divided the year into equal months, and the Egyptians are still using these months in Upper Egypt especially at the time of the farming, Moreover; they related these months to a specific phenomenon or weather.
Now we are going to tell you the ancient Egyptian agricultural months:
- Hathor ”the goddess of beauty and fertility”:
This month lasts from the tenth of November to the ninth of December. There is an international quote is saying “Hathor the father of the scattered gold“ this proverb was as figurative about the scattered seeds of the wheat which like the gold.
This month lasts from the tenth of December to the eighth of January, its name means” the meeting of the souls”. Consequently; this month considered as one of the religious feasts.
Also, Koiak is famous for short midday and a long night, so the ancient Egyptian peasant used to eat two meals a day. As well as this month is the coldest month of the year
This month lasts from the ninth of January to the seventh of February, besides that Tobi was the feast of the wheat. This month distinguished by the long midday. As also this month is one of the coldest months of the year.
- Meshir“ The goddess of the wind and storm”:
This month lasts between the eighth of February and the ninth of March. Meshir distinguished by strong storms and very cold weather.
- Paremhat ”this month belonged to the pharaoh king Amenhotep”
This month lasts from the tenth of March and the eighth of April. During the paremhat, the ancient Egyptians were harvesting the crops which grow in this month. Paremoude” the goddess of harvest”.
This month lasts between the ninth of April and the eighth of May. The ancient Egyptian peasants have separated the seeds of the wheat and the barley after harvesting by the heavy stick.
This month lasts between the ninth of May and the seventh of June.
This month lasts from the eighth of June and the seventh of July.
During this month, the ancient Egyptian used to transfer and store the crops and the grains such as the wheat in the silos.
- Epip” this month was the feast of the god Eby”:
This month lasts from the eighth of July and the sixth of August. The name of this month means “the joy of the sky”
- Mesori “ the god of the sun”:
This month lasts from the seventh of August and the fifth of September.
The used animals in the ancient Egyptian agriculture
The ancient Egyptians used the pet animals to help them to cultivate the agriculture lands very quickly; we are going to focus on the most important animals which the peasants have used in the farms in ancient Egypt agriculture.
The ancient Egyptian peasants were using the oxen which have long and short horns, as well as, the African types did not have long horns.
They used oxen to drag the ploughs which use to ventilate and flip the agricultural lands.
Also, they used this type of animals to cultivate the farmlands, as well as, they benefited from their meats.
Although there were pigs in the ancient Egypt, the ancient Egyptian peasant did not use this type of animals because they believed that type of animal works as a servant for the god “Set. By the way, some people who lived in the deserts were domesticating this type of animals. They also used the donkey to carry their goods.
This animal lived in the ancient Egyptian desert and it was very common animal in the ninth, tenth and twenty–fifth dynasties and the Roman era. As well as, the ancient Egyptian peasant used it to carry the crops and goods on the camel’s back.
- The horses:
The ancient Egyptian peasant used the horses in the farmlands, it was said that Egypt did not know the horses before the innovation of the Hyksos, but some archaeologists have found two mummified horses in one of the Nubian tombs which date back to the old kingdom.
- The dogs:
There were different types of dogs in the ancient Egypt, the first one was very big, and so the ancient Egyptians used this type for hunting. The second type was middle size, but they did not like this type of dogs.
The third one was small and all people preferred keeping this type inside their houses. As well as, the peasants used the dogs to protect the goats from the wolf’s dangerous and also to protect the animals from being stolen.
The ancient Egyptian had stored the grains in silos before starting the season of the flood which stays for a long time. Also, they were domesticating the Poultry.
They domesticated some types of birds such as geese with other types of birds, whereas the ancient Egyptian Peasants benefited from its eggs in special occasions and feasts.