In ancient Egypt, we have discovered that the ancient Nubians mixed in a wide range with the ancient Egyptians.
This mixing was not by chance, but it had a very long history, as the ancient Egyptians and the Nubians have involved in different kinds of relations, sometimes friendly, commercially, and cultural exchange relations, and other times they have involved in wars and battles.
Since a long time, the Nubian emigrated from Nubia (South of Egypt) to the Pharaonic kingdom for working and earning his living, but the displacement was very limited because the Nubian did not want to be buried in Egypt.
At the beginning of the New Kingdom Egypt wanted to regain its control over the Nubian land, so the kings involved in different wars and they captured thousands of Nubians as slaves to work in the land, serving at the Egyptian army, working in different crafts.
And the Nubian women were working in spinning and weaving, other Nubians women were working in the houses of the dignitaries and nobles as servants.
We have found a text referred to a woman called “Merit-Re”, she was a wife of a nobleman, and she had 2 Nubian servants.
The Nubian also worked as a fan-bearer to the noblewomen in the palaces, and they worked also sailors, but most Nubians were serving in the army and police, as the Nubian soldiers played a great role in the liberation war against the Hyksos.
- Ancient Egypt: the Nubians in the Old Kingdom
- We have found the name of king “Ger” in the mountains of Suleiman in “Wadi Halfa”. This king had a military activity in the Nubian land.
- King “Senfru” had led a campaign to Nubia and captured about 7000 captives.
At the beginning of the Old Kingdom, the relations between the Egyptians and Nubians were very friendly, we concluded that from the campaign which sent by king Pepi I to fight the Bedouins. There were a lot of Nubians soldiers involved in this war.
A lot of Nubians also were working in the police at the time of Pepi I, and after they had finished their service, they came back to their land to be buried there.
But these friendly relations changed at the time of king Papi Nakht because the resources have mentioned that the traveler “Harkhouf” traveled to Nubia to get a lot of local plants to be planted in Egypt so the Nubians felt hostility towards the Egyptians.
- The Nubians in the Middle Kingdom
The Nubians at this time decided to invade and control the Southern part of ancient Egypt, so king Senusret III led about 37 campaigns to hold up their progress.
He built the forts at the area between the 1st and 2nd cataract. After he had defeated the Nubians, he prevented them, even the civilians, from entering Egypt.
- Ancient Egypt: the Nubians in the New Kingdom
At the New Kingdom, the Nubians adopted the ancient Egyptian characteristics and traditions in each aspect of life.
The reason about that was the fleeing of the priests to the mountains of Barka and Nabta at the reign of king Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) because of his religious revolution, and they fled again at the 19th dynasty because of the robbery of the tombs, then their grandsons came back again to establish the 25th dynasty in Egypt which known as the Nubian dynasty.
Now we have mentioned the facts about the mixing of the Nubians with the Egyptians in ancient Egypt.