Ancient Egypt agriculture, facts about farming in ancient Egypt

Facts about Egyptian farming

Ancient Egypt agriculture is one of the most interesting facts about Egypt. The ancient Egyptian civilization had its agricultural character. The farming in ancient Egypt was the reason of its prosperity and wealthy.

The ancient Egyptian made the best use of the agriculture to afford his needs. He introduced different crops and techniques which are used nowadays.

The Nile River was considered one of the most important natural factors that helped in establishing the ancient Egyptian kingdom.

The ancient Egyptians knew how to use to the Nile in such a good and useful way to achieve the maximum benefit of it. They have built the Nilometer, dams, digging canals, and using the shadoofs, scythes, plows which were pulled by the bulls. Therefore, the ancient Egyptian was the first one to learn the mankind the science of agriculture.

Here in Egypt, we have the oldest agricultural sites like El-Badary site, as the archeologists have found that the ancient Egyptian has started farming in this site 7000 years ago.

The ancient Egyptian paid a great attention to the animal, as he realized the importance of it to him. So he used it in his work in the farming, and he also paid attention to the veterinary medicine.

Facts about agriculture in Egypt
Taming animals in ancient Egypt

Important god related to the ancient Egypt agriculture

God Osiris: one of the most famous deities in ancient Egypt, as he one of the members of Ennead of Heliopolis. The ancient myths told us that this god was the 1st one to introduce the agriculture in ancient Egypt.

He was considered the god of farming and greenery, and then became the god of resurrection which related to the Nile flooding.

Goddess Isis: she was god Osiris’ wife. She became the symbol of female Egyptian farmer, magic, beauty, and sincerity to her husband.

Goddess Sekhet: the goddess of fields in ancient Egypt.

The ancient Egyptian has divided the year into three seasons. These seasons related to the farming. The names of these months were derived from the Coptic language, and these seasons are:

The season of flooding (Akht)

This season was divided into 4 months which were:

  • Thout: from 11 September to 10 October. This name was derived from god Thoth, god of Wisdom. According to the myths, he put this calendar.
  • Paopi: from 11 October to 9 November. This name was derived from god Hapi, god of the Nile.
  • Hathor: from 10 November to 9 December. This name was derived from goddess Hathor, goddess of beauty and love.
  • Koiak: from 10 December to 8 January. This name was derived from god Ka Ha Ka, the sacred Apis Bull.

The season of agriculture (Beret), the season of growth and winter

This season was divided into 4 months which were:

  • Tobi: from 9 January to 7 February. This name was derived from god Amso Khem, a form of Amun-Ra.
  • Meshir: from 8 February to 9 March. This name was derived from god Mechir, the genius of wind.
  • Paremhat: from 10 March to 8 April. This name was derived from god Bamont, god of high temperature.
  • Parmouti: from 9 April to 8 May. This name was derived from god Renno, severe wind, and death.

Season of Shomu (harvest season) or summer

 This season was divided also into 4 months, where were:

  • Pashons: from 9 May to 7 June. This name was derived from god Khenti, a form of Horus, god of metals.
  • Paoni: from 8 June to 7 July. This name was derived from god p3-n-In, valley festival.
  • Epip: from 8 July – 6 August. This name was derived from god Apida, the serpent.
  • Mesori: from 7 August to 5 September. This name was derived from god Mesori, a birth of the sun.

The ancient Egyptian has paid a great importance to the agriculture due to two reasons which were:

To afford his needs from food, drink, and clothes. The second reason was religious purposes, as he was farming to present offerings to the god. These offerings were foods, vegetables, fruits, poultry, and fish.

He also planted the linen to make scrolls which wrap the bodies of the dead people during mummification.

El-Badary civilization

It is a village locates on the Eastern bank of the Nile in Asyut governorate. El-Badry civilization was definite evidence of the agriculture in pre-dynastic period.

The farming had its own importance in this village at the 2nd Badary civilization, as the ancient Egyptian planted more crops and developed the types of crops.

We also found different tools which were used in the agriculture works like bows, plows, and some crops like wheat and lentil.

The crops in ancient Egypt

The farming in ancient Egypt was the main pillar of the Egyptian economy. It related also to the religious doctrine of the Egyptian. So he introduced different types of crops which were never known before him like Beans, Lentil, Corn, Fenugreek, Cucumber, Onion, and Lettuce.

He also planted different types of fruits like Figs, Grapes, Lotus, Sycamore, and dates.

Now we have the most important information about ancient Egypt agriculture.

Facts about farming in ancient Egypt
Agriculture in ancient Egypt