Agriculture in ancient Egypt was the most important aspect of the life of ancient Egyptians. Now, we are going to talk about the techniques of farming and tools that were used in agriculture.
The agricultural lands were irrigated by the water of the Nile River and its canals. Moreover; some agricultural lands were watered by the rains, besides that the ancient Egyptians used a basin irrigation strategy to irrigate the lands which located on the same level of the Nile River.
The ancient Egyptians used different tools to irrigate the agricultural lands such as counterpoise lift “Al- shadoof” and the water wheels.
Now we are going to focus on special irrigation tools which the Pharaohs used to irrigate their agricultural lands in ancient Egyptian agriculture.
- The first tool was Al-shadoof:
This special tool has been invented by the ancient Egyptians to irrigate their agricultural lands which located above the high level of the Nile River, highways, and railway, also the small agricultural lands which the modern machines find a difficult to irrigate them.
- The second tool was The tractor:
They used the Tractor in the ancient Egypt, as well as, there were some deceptions on the walls of Maroka’s tomb which confirmed that they were planting the lettuce and water it by the tractor.
- The third tool was Al-Tanbour:
Archimedes 287-212 B.C “a Roman archaeologist” has invented another tool to help the ancient Egyptians to irrigate their farm lands.
The ancient Egyptian used this tool to water the highlands which located above the level of the Nile River in the Ptolemaic era, but the archaeologists did not find any deceptions on the walls of the tombs, Moreover; the Egyptian peasants are still using this tool.
- The fourth tool was The water wheel:
The archaeologists did not find any depiction of the water wheel on the walls of the tombs, but Darsi confirmed that he has found out a water wheel during he was cleaning a hole in “Al- Deir El-Bahari”, Tebes, he has found the oldest Egyptian water wheel.
In 1931 A.C, Samy Gabra has found out this water wheel during the Excavations of Tuna El-Gebel which dates back to the roman era. This water wheel is still there in Tuna El-Gebel.
They used the water wheel in the last period of the Pharaonic era and the early period of the Roman and Greek era. The used these tools in the ancient Egyptian agriculture.
The ancient Egyptians had used the tools which made of stones, before the appearing of the metals, so they had made their tools from metals instead of the stones.
They used these tools (the Axe, the plough, Hatech, Al-Mazarah and the sickle) to restore and cultivate the agricultural lands.
We are going to show you the tools which the ancient Egyptian peasants used to cultivate the farmlands beside its advantages and disadvantages.
- The first tool was The Ax:
This tool considered as the oldest farming tools which have invented by the ancient Egyptians.
The Egyptians were using this tool in a prehistoric era, the Egyptians are still using this tool instead of the hand until now to scarify the lands, but using this tool made this mission so difficult.
- The second tool was The Plough:
The ancient Egyptians were calling this tool “ska”, and finally, they released if the stick of the ax became longer, they would be able to put it between the horns of the oxen.
- The third tool was The Sickle:
The ancient Egyptian has invented another tool “the Sickle” they took the idea of this tool during seeing the oxen was eating the grass. This tool consisted of the wooden piece and sharp, thin and zigzag blades.
- The fourth tool was Al-Mazarah:
This tool consisted of the wooden piece like a palm of the hand, which help them to collect the crops and separated the grains from the crops.
- The fifth tool was The Hatchet:
They used it in the Palaeolithic era “the old stone age” to clean the land from harmful grasses, at the beginning. This tool was made from stones, then, they made it from copper in the ancient Egypt.
- The sixth tool was The Knife:
The knife was made of stone and its stick was made of wood and they find different types of the knives which backward to the fifth dynasty.
The ancient Egyptian did not use this tool to plant the seeds but they used the animal, moreover; they used this tool besides other tools such as (ropes, wooden scales and to separate the grains from crops) in the Roman and Greek era.
The origin of the agriculture in ancient Egypt:
The ancient Egypt agriculture has been discovered by the ancient Egyptians in the Neolithic era” the new stone age”. Before discovering the farming, the ancient Egyptian had lived on hunting, fishing, and harvests the wild food.
The discovering of farming was a great one in the history of the human beings, Moreover; the human’s life has completely changed, the Homo sapiens became more Creativity, after they had been controlled by nature.
- The ancient Egyptian agricultural methods:
- Preparing the agricultural lands for cultivating:
The ancient Egyptian peasants had followed most important steps before cultivating the farm lands, so they were getting the land very ready by purging the canals and the land from the harmful insects after the flooding water had reduced.
- The second step was the plowing:
The ancient Egyptian peasants were using the cows and oxen to plow up the agricultural lands. There were some inscriptions of the plowing lands on the walls of the “Bani Hassan’s tombs” and” Nikht’s tomb “in Thebes.
- The third step was the Fertilization:
They were using the animal manure to fertilize the farmland, in order that, this type of fertilization very good for the crops because it was providing them with the good nutrients.
- The fourth step was scarfing the land:
The ancient Egyptian peasants were using the ax to scarify the farmland, but in some cases, if the land did not completely dry, the peasant would not scarify the land.
- The fifth step was planting the seeds in the land:-
In this step, they were putting the seeds in their hand, then scattered the seeds on the land after that he pressed the seeds by his foot to plant them in the agricultural lands very well.
The Surveying of the agricultural land:
The ancient Egyptians were using the ropes to know the yards of the farmland to calculate the agricultural wealth to impose the taxes on the farmlands.
- The last step was harvest the corps:
In this step, they harvested the crops and storing them in the silos, as well as the plants were pulled out by the hand and packed them. They found a scene in the one of Al- Shiekh Said’s tomb, which dates back to the old kingdom, confirmed that they were pulling the plants and feeding them to the animals as forage.