The ancient Egyptian history includes an era, the scholars called it the pre-dynastic period. Egypt at that time was consisting of small cities.
Gradually, all these cities have united, after that Egypt consisted of two kingdoms. The first Northern kingdom was in the west of Delta and its capital was “Poto”, its slogan was the papyrus, and its god was “Hur”.
The second was the Southern Kingdom, its capital was “Nakhn” also known as “Al- Kab”, its slogan was the Lotus, and its god was “seet”.
In prehistory era, the ancient Egyptians were trying to unite both of two kingdoms. The southern kingdom reached up to a high level of civilization.
In 4241 B.C, the ancient Egyptians have discovered the solar calendar whereas this year consisted of 365 days, so this calendar considered as the most ancient calendars in the whole world, in order that Pre-dynastic era of ancient Egyptian history considered as the most important era like another era the in ancient history of Egypt.
Now, we are going to focus on some cultures which have appeared in the history of ancient Egypt.
Marmada Bani Salama was a small village which located on the South-West of Delta and 50 Kilometers North-West of Cairo.
Archaeological discoveries have shown that the people who lived in this village introduced the farming. In addition to, they stored the grains in the silos made from Wickers and straws, as well as; they were very clever in the handmade of wonderful and simple ornamental pottery.
The archaeologists have deduced that they did not know the farming, but also they were domesticating the animals and grinding the grains. In addition to, they were using the flax material to weave their clothes. As well as, they preferred wearing bracelets and rings which made from bone.
Also, there were two types of the houses; the first type was “oval shape” and they were using a big mass of muds to build their houses which were built in one row. These houses were separated by a narrow street.
They buried their dead people in tombs close to their houses.
The ancient Egyptians were living in small communities nearby the banks of the Swamps and the river. They were living under the protection of the heavy plants which were working as windbreakers.
They also found lots of oval cottages which made of a big mass of dry muds, and its substructure was below the earth level. Also, they were using wide pots to collect the rain water that leaking out from the roof which made of straws.
Al- Fayoum located on “100 km” of the South-West of Cairo on the left side of the Nile River.
Lake Moeris considered as the remains part of the old lake which was called Ta-Hint by the ancient Egyptians, also was called by Moeris by the ancient Greeks. This lake was surrounded by high hills and walls in whole directions. In addition to, this lake gathers between the features of the desert depression and the features of Al-Delta.
The archaeological researchers confirmed that the ancient Egyptian selected this site which belongs to the modern Stone Age as their settlement places.
In addition to, the ancient Egyptians have made ornamental potteries, and these potteries were very tough because they were using the dry mud.
We can make a difference between three kinds of Al-Fayoum’s potteries. The first one was red and polished, the second one was black and polished, also they were very clever in the handmade of scuttles which were made by Plant stalks, moreover; They used these scuttles to underlay the grains’ stores which buried in the land.
The Excavations have shown that the ancient Egyptian used 248 holes to cook the food, furthermore; there were private and public silos to store the Wheat and barley, besides that the archaeologists have found all these silos above the hills far from the houses.
They also found some ornamental tools such as bracelets, ears, and necklaces which made of stones, moreover; the ancient Egyptians were using the shells as ornament tools.
They were fishing from lakes and hunting the wilds animals from jungles such as Hippopotamus and wild pigs beside the farming craft.
The civilization of Al-Badary village in the ancient history of Egypt:-
Al-Badary was a small village in the upper Egypt “Asyut Governorate” which locates on the eastern bank of the Nile River.
This culture was richer than other cultures which appeared in the Stone Age, as well as, the culture of Al-Badary have reached to a high level of development more than the culture of “Marmada Bani Salama” which belongs to the Chalcolithic era.
In this period of the ancient Egyptian history, they used copper to make their tools, also the Egyptians who lived in Al-Badary village were using the same tools which the urban people use to make Pins and drills, moreover; they were very interested in agriculture, ornaments, and furniture.
The culture of Al-Badary included different fields such as agriculture, industry, ornaments, and furniture. This culture considered as the beginning of other new cultures such as” the first and second culture of Naqada”.
The farming and domesticating the animals were the most features which distinguish this culture.
The ancient Egyptians were famous for all types of the handmade potteries, moreover; these types of the potteries whether red or black which belong to the culture of Al-Badary considered as the best types of potteries in the ancient Egypt.
Both women and men were like the Ornaments very much. They were wearing rings, ears, bracelets, necklace, hair accessories, wooden combs and embroidered cloth.
The culture of Al-Badary was distinguished by the Visual arts in hence that the ancient Egyptian left lots of handmade statues which made of muds and bone.
In addition to, their houses were distinguished by special wooden beds and some furniture
They were burying their dead in tombs far from their house and their tombs were about sand holes, as well as, they were not only putting pillow which made of flax clothes or straw and some potteries with their dead, but also they were burying animals and some states such as cats, dogs, birds, or women and a lot of pottery, consequently the ancient Egyptians were believing in the Resurrection and immortality.
Ancient Egyptian history: Tasian culture
“Deir Tasa” is a small village which located on the eastern bank of the Nile River in Asyut Governorate. This culture has been established in 4800 B.C. the ancient Egyptian was rolling their dead in animals’ leathers. This culture was famous for the black potteries.
Although This culture had appeared before the culture of Al- Badary, but some of the ancient Egyptians united them in one culture because the Geographical sites for both villages were very close to each other.
Nonetheless, the culture of Deir Tasa was belonging to the stone age, but the culture of Al-Badary was belonging to the Chalcolithic era.
The culture of Naqada considered as the most important eras in that period of the ancient history.
These three cultures of Naqada were belonging to one of the cities in Qena governorate.
The Egyptologists have found a lot of monuments which belonged to this culture in a lot of sites such as middle Egypt and the first cataract.
They also found some pins and other tools which made from copper in Naqada’s tombs, in addition to, their houses were very simple whereas the ancient Egyptian were using the tree branches which covered by muds to build their houses.
In another side, their tombs were little a bit deep and Elliptical holes, in addition to, they were burying their dead in squatting position, as well as they were rolled by goats’ leathers.
This culture was more famous than other cultures in the ancient Egyptian history. The archaeologists have found a lot of monuments which belong to this culture in the south of Egypt in Nubia and in the North of Egypt in “Tarkhan”.
This culture was famous for establishing the basis of the farming culture, also this culture reached up to a high level of the stones and metal industry. In addition to, they used copper metal in some manufacturers of tools.
Their houses were evolved in comparison with other houses of the culture of Naqada I, these houses were Rectangular shape and was built by muds, but the tombs were evolved more than other tombs, as well as, the ancient Egyptian covered their tombs by muds, Inches, and mat, the tombs were not only a burial room, but there were small rooms in the tombs, and they used it to store the potteries and burial furniture.
I would like to finish the previous part and start a new part of the ancient Egyptian history especially “the Predynastic era” but I found a lot of information about the unknown period of the ancient history of Egypt. As long as I searched for this period, I found more opaque information.
The French archaeologist “Arslan“ came to Egypt in 1868 A.C, and he confirmed that there was a prehistoric era in the ancient history of Egypt.
During his visit to Egypt, he makes some researchers, and collected more information about the pyramids, in addition to some Machines which made of Al-Zaran stones.
Also, he found a big factory of Al-Zaran stones which located above the hills that overlooked the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. By the way, this factory was belonging to the old stone era” Al-Balioliti” The pre historic era divided into three periods whereas the first dynasty was in 3200B.C.
Some archaeologists did some researches about that, but some archaeologists denied the first era of the ancient history of Egypt.
The first era is also known as the old stone era ”Al-Yolite”, and they used Al-Zaran stones as they found them in nature. The second era also known as the old stone era “Al- Balyutle”, they also used the refining stones.
The new era ”Al-Nulity” they were using the metals also they used stones, copper, and iron manufacture the machines. It was impossible to know the exact dates of these periods, but some archaeologists such as” Flinders” put dates for these eras.
During the studies, they have found tombs which date back to the period of using the metals, in addition to; they arranged the different types of potteries which it has been found by the archaeologists.
They concluded that the modern stone era started 10000 B.C, and they started to use the metals 5500 B.C. all these dates considered just as conclusions.